Small Modular Reactors
Small modular reactors (SMRs) are nuclear fission reactors that are smaller than conventional reactors. The term “small” in the context of SMRs refers to design power output.
Small modular reactors have a power output of less than 300 MWe. The term “modular” in the context of SMRs refers to its scalability and to the ability to fabricate major components of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) in a factory environment and then transported them to the site.
List of 20 SMR Companies
Here are the names of the SMRs being developed by each company on the list of 20:
- NuScale Power – NuScale Power Module
- Holtec International – SMR-160
- GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy – BWRX-300
- Rosatom – KLT-40S
- Westinghouse Electric Company – eVinci Micro Reactor
- TerraPower – Natrium
- General Atomics – Energy Multiplier Module
- X-energy – Xe-100
- Rolls-Royce SMR
- China National Nuclear Corporation – HTR-PM and NHR-200
- Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute – SMART
- Canadian Nuclear Laboratories – Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR)
- Oklo – Aurora
- Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation – Micro-Modular Reactor (MMR)
- Idaho National Laboratory – The 4S (Super-Safe, Small and Simple) Reactor and the ARC-100
- Moltex Energy – Stable Salt Reactor (SSR)
- U-Battery Developments – U-Battery
- Seaborg Technologies – Compact Molten Salt Reactor (CMSR)
- ThorCon Power – ThorCon Isotope Power System (TIPS) and ThorCon Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR)
Note that this is not an exhaustive list, and there are other companies and organizations that are also developing SMRs.
Examples of SMR Designs
Each type of SMR has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of reactor technology depends on various factors, including the intended use, the site characteristics, and the regulatory requirements.
Here are ten examples of small modular reactor (SMR) designs:
- NuScale Power Module: This pressurized water reactor (PWR) design from NuScale Power in the United States is a scalable system that can be deployed in units of up to 12 modules. Each module has a capacity of 60 MW, and the entire system can produce up to 720 MW.
- SMR-160: This PWR design from Holtec International in the United States has a capacity of 160 MW and can be deployed in units of up to six modules. The reactor vessel is submerged in water, which provides an additional safety feature in case of an accident.
- BWRX-300: This boiling water reactor (BWR) design from GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy in the United States has a capacity of 300 MW and can be deployed in units of up to six modules. It uses a simplified, innovative design that reduces the number of components and enhances safety.
- KLT-40S: This PWR design from Rosatom in Russia has a capacity of 35 MW and is primarily used for marine propulsion, although it can also be used for electricity generation. It uses a liquid metal coolant to enhance safety and efficiency.
- CAREM: This PWR design from Argentina has a capacity of 25 MW and is designed to be used in remote locations or areas with limited infrastructure. It has a compact, self-contained design that enhances safety and simplifies construction.
- ARC-100: This sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) design from ARC Nuclear in the United States has a capacity of 100 MW and can be deployed in units of up to four modules. It uses a passive safety system that does not require external power or human intervention.
- Moltex Stable Salt Reactor: This molten salt reactor (MSR) design from Moltex Energy in the United Kingdom uses a unique fuel design that makes it resistant to nuclear weapons proliferation. It has a capacity of 300 MW and can be deployed in units of up to six modules.
- HTR-PM: This high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design from China National Nuclear Corporation has a capacity of 200 MW and uses a pebble-bed fuel design that enhances safety and efficiency. It is currently under construction in China.
- SMART: This PWR design from the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has a capacity of 330 MW and is designed for use in small grid systems or remote locations. It uses a passive safety system and has a modular, compact design.
- Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactor: This liquid metal-cooled reactor (LMR) design from the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan has a capacity of 10 MW and is primarily used for research and development purposes. It uses a lead-bismuth coolant that enhances safety and efficiency.